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Montelimar Declaration of the Central American Presidents
General Assembly Security Council Distr.
9 April 1990
Agenda item 34
THE SITUATION IN CENTRAL AMERICA:
THREATS TO INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND
SECURITY AND PEACE INITIATIVES
Letter dated 5 April 1990 from the Representatives of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General
We have the honour to transmit to you the "Montelimar Declaration", signed by the Presidents of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua on 3 April 1990 in Nicaragua (see annex).
We should be grateful if you would have this Declaration circulated as an official document of the forty-fourth session of the General Assembly, under agenda item 34, and of the Security Council.
(Signed) Emilia CASTRO de BARISH
Ambassador, Chargée d'affaires a.i.
of Costa Rica to the United Nations
(Signed) Ricardo G. CASTANEDA-CORNEJO
Ambassador, Permanent Representative of
El Salvador to the United Nations
(Signed) Francisco VILLAGRAN DE LEON
Ambassador, Permanent Representative
of Guatemala to the United Nations
(Signed) Javier SUAZO TOME
Ambassador, Chargé d'affaires a.i.
of Honduras to the United Nations
(Signed) Alejandro SERRANO CALDERA
Ambassador, Permanent Representative
of Nicaragua to the United Nations
The Presidents of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua, meeting at Montelimar, Republic of Nicaragua, on 2 and 3 April 1990,
Bearing in mind the matters agreed upon in the various documents and declarations constituting the Esquipulas peace process which forms a single and indivisible whole, and inspired by the same patriotic and Central American spirit as has enabled the dialogue and negotiations held by the Central American Presidents to make a historic and decisive contribution for regional peace,
1. To confirm the full validity of each and every commitment assumed in the Esquipulas process, and to renew the decision to implement the agreements reached in their entirety.
2. To express their satisfaction with the progress achieved for consolidating democracy in the region through fair and honest electoral processes that bear witness to the effectiveness and fulfilment of the political commitments assumed in the context of Esquipulas.
3. To express their pleasure at the successful outcome, on 25 February 1990, of the electoral process in the Republic of Nicaragua, because these elections were held in a completely free and honest environment, as witnessed by the numerous international observers.
To commend the guarantees extended by the Government of Nicaragua in fulfilment of the political commitments entered into at the various stages of the Esquipulas process, and to express their satisfaction with the agreements reached by the Transition Teams of the current Government and the Government-elect, to which they gave their moral support out of respect for the paramount decisions adopted by the Nicaraguan people.
Accordingly, the Presidents of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras convey their thanks to the President of Nicaragua, Daniel Ortega Saavedra, for promoting and reinforcing the process towards consolidating representative and pluralistic democracy in his country.
4. To confirm their pledge to continue promoting respect for human rights, which includes strengthening and improving their democratic systems for the purpose of fully ensuring: participation of all citizens in the political life of the country; independence and impartiality of the judiciary; and respect for civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights.
5. To emphasize the urgent need for immediate demobilization of the Nicaraguan Resistance, pursuant to the Joint Plan for demobilization, signed at the Tela Summit on 7 August 1989, and the Toncontin Agreement, signed in Honduras on 23 March 1990, and to express their satisfaction at the willingness shown by the parties involved to achieve that objective.
The Presidents of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras applaud the immediate support given by the Government of Nicaragua to the aforesaid Agreement which they also fully support, so that peace may be restored in the country and the transfer of power carried out in absolutely normal conditions.
To support the Protocol of Procedure for the Transfer of Presidential Authority of the Republic of Nicaragua, and to request the United Nations Observer Group in Central America (ONUCA) and the International Support and Verification Commission (CIAV) to take the necessary steps to ensure timely support for the demobilization and disarmament of the members of the Resistance who are inside or outside Nicaragua, a process which is to be initiated immediately and to be concluded no later than 25 April 1990.
The weapons to be received by ONUCA are to be destroyed in situ in the presence of representatives of other Central American Governments invited for this purpose by the relevant Government.
To urge the Government of the United States of America to continue supporting and contributing to the demobilization of the Nicaraguan Resistance and to channel the funds approved for these forces to CIAV, so that the said funds are used for reintegrating both the ex-members of the Nicaraguan Resistance who have handed over their weapons to ONUCA, and their families, into the normal life of the country.
To express their thanks and recognition for the valuable co-operation of the Government of Honduras in demobilizing the Nicaraguan Resistance.
6. To thank the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the Secretary-General of the Organization of American States for their continued efforts in support of the Esquipulas process, and to reiterate their support for the work of ONUCA and CIAV.
7. To reaffirm the importance, for the consolidation of democracy, of integrating the irregular forces into political life, within the framework of the Esquipulas Agreements. In this regard, they expressed their satisfaction at the forthcoming resumption of talks between the Government of El Salvador and the Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional (FMLN) and at the agreements reached at Oslo between the National Reconciliation Commission of Guatemala and the Unión Revolucionaria Nacionalista de Guatemala (URNG). The Central American countries also offered to serve as hosts for the meetings to be conducted in the context of these processes.
8. To condemn terrorist actions in the region and to reiterate their appeal for the cessation of violent action of all kinds that directly or indirectly harms the civilian population and to the production infrastructure, and to demand the immediate release of all persons being held by irregular forces or terrorist groups.
9. In accordance with point 7 of the Esquipulas II Agreement and in the light of the progress made in national reconciliation processes and in the consolidation and improvement of democracy, they decide that now is the time to promote and prepare a timetable for the pending negotiations in the matter of security, verification, control and limitation of arms. They therefore summon the Security Commission to meet in Costa Rica on 15 May 1990 for the purpose of continuing such negotiations.
10. Once the obstacles to peace have been overcome, it is necessary, in order to consolidate democracy, to face the economic challenge with determination; consequently, they decide that the next summit meeting should address the following issues in depth:
(a) The restructuring, strengthening and reactivation of regional economic integration;
(b) Movement towards an integrated system of production at the regional level
(c) A restatement of the issues deriving from the external debt; and
(d) Better distribution of the social costs of the necessary adjustment of the economies.
To support the national economic adjustment programmes required for dealing with the serious economic and social problems of the area, the solution of which is vital for stabilizing the countries of the region. In this regard, they appeal to the International community to strengthen, consolidate and increase economic support for the region, for example, through the Luxembourg Agreement, direct co-operation and the Special Plan of Economic Co-operation for Central America. In this context, they reiterate the urgent need to provide Central America with additional financial resources on favourable terms.
To recognize the need to strengthen the activities of the public and private, national and international organizations which are helping to overcome political obstacles, solve social problems and promote economic development in the region. In this connection, they have expressed their satisfaction at the offers to contribute towards this end that have been made, on this occasion, by the Governments of Canada and Japan.
To express their conviction that, at this new stage, it is essential that the people and Government of Panama should be included in the efforts being made in the region to strengthen and improve the countries' democratic and pluralistic regimes which are committed to the economic and social development of their peoples. Being determined to make this concept a reality, and to support their efforts to restore to normal the political life of that country, while maintaining the strictest respect for the international legal order and, in particular, for the rules governing the co-existence of sovereign States, they decide to extend a fraternal invitation to the Government of Panama to participate actively in the processes of dialogue, negotiation and harmonization being carried out in these areas by the Governments of Central America.
To express their satisfaction at the progress achieved in implementing the Special Plan for Economic Co-operation for Central America (PEC) as a valuable instrument of the Peace Plan, and to urge the parties concerned to enter into project-financing commitments within the context of the sectoral meetings sponsored by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). They also stress that this arrangement should continue to receive budgetary support within the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
To welcome the proposal, put forward by the Governments of Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela, designed to extend their co-operation to the development and strengthening of national centres in the Central American countries, which would enable these centres to acquire a regional scope and significance in the sectors of education, health, agriculture and energy, and to acknowledge the contribution they are making to the achievement of peace in Central America.
11. To express their profound satisfaction with the process of ratification of the Protocol to the Constituent Treaty of the Central American Parliament, which will make possible the establishment of this Parliament, thus initiating a new stage in the Central American inteqration process.
12. To sign the Regional Co-operation Agreement to Eradicate Illegal Drug Trafficking, as an expression of their firm political will to co-operate closely in the joint endeavour to prevent and stand up to the risks deriving from illicit drug trafficking. In particular, they have stressed the importance of regional and international co-operation and of adopting laws that will make it possible to eradicate drug trafficking.
13. To express their satisfaction with the work done by the Central American Commission on Environment and Development, and to reaffirm their support, encouraging it to continue its activities and evaluate the need for, and the advisability of, mustering sources of financing and flexible and innovative financial mechanisms for carrying out their programmes and projects. To this end, they agree to discuss the issue of "debt-for-environment" swaps at the next summit.
14. To support the implementation of development programmes for displaced, refugee and repatriate populations in Central America, while requesting the international community to maintain and increase support for the commitments they have undertaken up to now so as not to delay their fulfilment, and to express their support for the first international meeting of the Follow-up Committee of the International Conference on Central American Refugees (CIREFCA), shortly to be held at United Nations Headquarters.
15. To reaffirm that the health of the Central American peoples is a political priority which involves maintaining and studying in depth joint actions in the health sector, as a bridge for peace and understanding between the peoples of the area. To this end, they have decided to direct their ministers of health, to evaluate immediately the achievements, over the last five years, of the Plan for Priority Health Needs in Central America and Panama (PPSCAP) and formulate a new health initiative for Central America. To this end, they request the co-operation of the Pan-American Health Organization and the World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO), among others.
16. They decide to convene during the second quarter of the current year at the regular meeting to be held in the Republic of Guatemala.
17. The Presidents of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras wish to congratulate the people and Government of Nicaragua for their fraternal hospitality, which contributed decisively towards creating a frank and constructive atmosphere which will surely further the Central American peace effort.
DONE at Montelimar, Republic of Nicaragua, on 3 April 1990.
Oscar ARIAS SANCHEZ
President of the Republic
of Costa Rica
Alfredo CRISTIANI BURKARD
President of the Republic
of El Salvador
Vinicio CEREZO AREVALO
President of the Republic
Rafael Leonardo CALLEJAS
President of the Republic
Daniel ORTEGA SAAVEDRA
President of the Republic of Nicaragua
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