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A brief history of modern European anarchism
1839: Frenchman Pierre-Joseph Proudhon writes De la Celebration du Dimanche, exploring social and political concepts surrounding poverty. Proudhou later described himself as an "anarchist" and became known as the "father of anarchism."
1864: The International Workingman's Association is founded as an umbrella organization of revolutionary political movements including anarchists. Although the movement becomes dominated by Marxists, its Spanish associates are mostly anarchists.
1873: Spanish anarchists organize strikes demanding an eight hour day. The authorities kill or arrest leading anarchists.
1917: Anarchists participate in Russia's February revolution overthrowing the tsar. Most align with the Bolsheviks and assist in the October Revolution that puts the Bolsheviks in power. They are later purged during the Russian Civil War.
1921: Catalonian anarchists assassinate Spanish Prime Minister Eduardo Dato on March 8 in Madrid.
1936: Anarchist militias fight against the fascist coup led by General Francisco Franco. They form a regional government in Barcelona until they are suppressed by the Communist Party.
1948: An International Anarchist Congress is held in Paris to try to revive the movement after its suppression under fascism.
1972: Grassroots Revolution magazine starts publication in Germany. It becomes one of the most prominent anarchist publications, backing pacifism and nuclear disarmament.
2001: Protesters, including anarchists, converge on Genoa to disrupt a G8 summit of the G8. Police kill several activists.
2011: Large numbers of left wing groups join the Occupy movement protesting against social and economic inequality. Camps established in financial centers in Europe and the United States promote a range of anti-capitalist ideologies including anarchism.
[Source: By Jack Watling, Reuters, 14Aug13]
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