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Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Mali (Sep.-Dec. 16)
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30 December 2016
Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Mali
1. By its resolution 2295 (2016), the Security Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) until 30 June 2017 and requested me to report on a quarterly basis on its implementation, focusing on progress in the implementation of the Agreement on Peace and Reconciliation in Mali and the efforts of MINUSMA to support it.
II. Major political developments
A. Implementation of the peace agreement
2. On 23 September, on the margins of the general debate of the seventy-first session of the General Assembly, I chaired, together with the President of Mali, Ibrahim Boubacar Keita, a ministerial meeting aimed at mitigating the tensions that had arisen among the parties to the peace agreement between July and September, giving fresh impetus to the peace process and soliciting enhanced international support. Following the opening session, the event was co-chaired by the Minister for Foreign Affairs, International Cooperation and African Integration of Mali, Abdoulaye Diop, and the Minister of State, Minister for Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of Algeria, Ramtane Lamamra, together with the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations. In the Co-Chairs' summary of the meeting, the parties were urged to fully and sincerely maintain their commitments under the agreement and encouraged to take specific steps to swiftly implement the agreement. Those efforts notwithstanding, progress in the implementation of the agreement remained slow. Amid renewed fighting between the Coordination des mouvements de l'Azawad (CMA) and the Platform coalition of armed groups, key provisions of the agreement, including the establishment of interim authorities and the launch of mixed patrols, were not put in place. Meanwhile, new armed groups sought inclusion in the interim institutional and security arrangements.
Political and institutional measures
3. On 21 and 22 September, the Agreement Monitoring Committee held its eleventh meeting, in Bamako, against the backdrop of a continuing standoff between signatory armed groups in the Kidal region. While CMA accused the Government of supporting the Groupe d'autodefense des Touaregs Imghad et leurs allies (GATIA), the Platform stressed the need to address the perceived domination of Kidal by the Tuareg Ifoghas community, the group that forms the backbone of CMA. On 21 September, the international mediation team issued a statement in which it condemned the ceasefire violations and stressed the need for dialogue in order to accelerate the implementation of the agreement. It also warned of possible sanctions against anyone who failed to cease hostilities and/or further derailed implementation. On the same day, CMA provided lists of nominees for the National Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Commission, the Commission on Integration and the National Council for Security Sector Reform, while the Platform nominated representatives for the interim authorities. On 7 October, CMA submitted lists of candidates for the interim authorities.
4. On 14 October, the Government appointed members of the interim authorities for the Gao, Kidal and Timbuktu regions, together with members of the transitional councils for the Menaka and Taoudenni regions, stipulating that they designate their President from within their ranks. The Government also nominated special advisers to the State representatives in each of the five northern regions, leading CMA to accuse it of unilaterally increasing its quorum of representatives within the interim authorities. Both CMA and the Platform insisted on assuming the presidency of the interim authorities in Kidal. Civil society organizations, especially youth groups in the Gao and Menaka regions, protested against the establishment of interim authorities. Notwithstanding the existence of Act No. 2015-052 of 18 December 2015, instituting measures to promote gender equality in access to nominated and elected positions by providing for a minimum 30 per cent quota for the representation of each gender, all 37 members of the interim authorities proposed by the parties were men. The Government designated one woman out of the 32 members of the transitional councils and two women out of the 20 special advisers.
5. At the twelfth and thirteenth meetings of the Agreement Monitoring Committee, on 19 and 20 October and 28 and 29 November, respectively, persistent disagreements between CMA and the Platform over security arrangements in Kidal overshadowed discussions on other issues. Although the signatory armed groups agreed in principle to launch mixed patrols in Kidal, the Platform requested CMA combatants who would not take part in the mixed patrols to leave Kidal for pre-cantonment sites outside the city. No agreement has been reached on this issue. In response, the Committee established a working group, chaired by the High Representative of the President for the implementation of the peace agreement, Mahamadou Diagouraga, to facilitate the implementation of interim measures, including the establishment of the Operational Coordination Mechanism in Gao and Kidal.
6. In the meantime, CMA splinter groups sought to be part of the peace process amid competition for power in northern Mali. On 16 December, the Mouvement populaire pour le salut de l'Azawad, the Coalition du peuple de l'Azawad and the Coordination des mouvements et fronts patriotiques de resistance II (CMFPR-II) issued a joint statement in which they denounced their exclusion from the interim political and security arrangements put in place through the agreement. At the fourteenth meeting of the Agreement Monitoring Committee, on 20 December, CMA announced the suspension of its participation in the Committee and its subcommittees, citing a lack of progress in the implementation of the agreement and the proliferation of armed groups, among other reasons. CMA also called for a high-level meeting of the international mediation team. The meeting, which proceeded without CMA, yielded limited progress on the establishment of interim authorities, while no solution was found to the demands of the splinter groups.
7. On 23 September, a group of opposition parliamentarians filed a motion before the Constitutional Court for the annulment of the new electoral law, arguing that it contravened, among other things, the Constitution and Act No. 2015-052 of
18 December 2015. On 13 October, the Court rejected the motion. On 17 October, the President promulgated the law, enabling the Government to proceed with the organization of local elections in line with the electoral calendar that it had announced in the middle of 2016. The signatory armed groups protested that that move was incompatible with the agreement, which provides that the establishment of interim authorities would precede elections. The Government held that the Constitution precluded a further deferment of local elections already postponed four times since 2009. On 20 October, the international mediation team met the Prime Minister, Modibo Keita, and encouraged the Government to pursue further consultations with the signatory armed groups. MINUSMA continued to engage with all stakeholders to help to achieve consensus on the electoral process. On
19 November, I issued a statement in which I encouraged the Government to pursue a constructive dialogue with all stakeholders to ease any tensions that might arise before and after the polls.
8. On 20 November, voting was conducted in 92 per cent of the country's 703 municipalities, with women representing about 31 per cent of all candidates. Security incidents and obstruction by armed individuals, including members of signatory armed groups, prevented voting in 43 municipalities in the northern and central regions, including in the Kidal region where candidatures had been registered in two municipalities. The polls were not conducted in 15 other municipalities in the Gao, Kidal and Timbuktu regions, as well as in the Menaka and Taoudenni regions where no candidates had stood. Unidentified assailants killed five soldiers in the Timbuktu region when they ambushed the armed forces transporting ballot boxes. MINUSMA provided logistical, security and technical assistance for the conduct of the polls. Through the United Nations Development Programme basket fund, the international community contributed $10 million towards staffing costs, electoral materials and awareness-raising programmes, among other things.
9. On 21 November, CMA issued a statement in which it rejected the legitimacy and results of the elections. The presidential majority parties, Rassemblement pour le Mali and Alliance pour la democratie au Mali-Parti africain pour la solidarite et la justice, won 187 and 131 municipalities, respectively. The Union pour la republique et la democratie won 102 municipalities. The national average turnout was 43 per cent (23 per cent in Bamako and 60 per cent in the Gao region). In Bamako and the Gao region, 30 per cent of the municipal counsellors elected were women, while in the Timbuktu region the figure was 29 per cent. On 26 November, the Government indicated that it would first organize by-elections in the municipalities in which operational and security conditions would allow and thereafter establish municipal-level interim authorities in those areas in which no candidate had stood and/or in which the security environment remained highly volatile.
Defence and security measures
10. Following the clashes between signatory armed groups from July to September, the Technical Commission on Security decided on 29 and 30 September that, as from 17 October, unless armed groups notified MINUSMA of movements of heavy weapons beforehand, the Mission would confiscate the armaments concerned and that movements of convoys of more than five vehicles would require prior consultation with MINUSMA. On 22 October, the Mission observed two unreported movements involving more than 25 Platform vehicles in the vicinity of Aguelhok, Kidal region. It warned the signatory armed groups to cease such movements.
11. New ceasefire violations between signatory armed groups were reported in the Gao region. On 1 December, CMA indicated that one of its members had been killed and an unspecified number of others captured in an attack on its base in Marsi by GATIA. On 3 December, the Platform and an armed group associated with CMA clashed in Fafa, leaving two Platform members injured. On 7 December, CMA and the Platform reportedly engaged in an armed confrontation in Talataye. The joint observation and verification team of the Technical Commission on Security could not investigate the allegations, reported by the signatory parties, owing to security concerns.
12. On 14 October, the signatory parties decided that cantonment would begin as soon as possible, a milestone that is unlikely to be achieved because the signatory armed groups have yet to submit their lists of combatants, the Commission on Integration has not adopted criteria for the combatants' integration into the Malian defence and security forces and there are no mixed patrols to secure the cantonment sites. All eight sites have nevertheless been ready to accommodate 12,000 combatants, including female combatants and children associated with armed groups, since 31 October. Throughout the reporting period, MINUSMA pursued its community violence reduction projects around cantonment sites in the Gao, Kidal, Mopti and Timbuktu regions. On 8 December, the donor conference held in Bamako in support of financing the National Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Programme raised $25 million for the reintegration of former combatants in Mali.
13. The Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Commission, the Commission on Integration and the National Council for Security Sector Reform were fully staffed by the end of the reporting period. On 16 November, the Government appointed the Chairs of the Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Commission and the Commission on Integration. On 2 and 8 December, the Government appointed representatives of signatory parties to the two commissions and the National Council. CMA and the Platform contested the reduced number of their members among the appointees, while the Government committed itself to paying benefits to the members of these entities. MINUSMA assisted the Government in developing draft integration criteria and organized a workshop aimed at strengthening the capacity of the members of the Commission on Integration and the National Council. The Mission also provided financial support for the rehabilitation and equipping of the National Council premises.
14. The operationalization of the Operational Coordination Mechanism and the launch of mixed patrols were further delayed owing to, among other things, the absence of integration criteria for the inclusion of combatants from the armed groups into national security institutions, disagreements over pre-cantonment sites in Kidal and demands by splinter armed groups to be included in the mixed patrols. Consequently, the signatory parties repeatedly pushed deadlines back. Nevertheless, the Malian armed forces and elements from the Platform and the Mouvement populaire pour le salut de l'Azawad conducted joint patrols in the Gao and Menaka regions on 3 October. CMA criticized the initiative as a violation of the agreement. On 5 December, about 100 members of CMFPR-II briefly occupied the Operational Coordination Mechanism site in Gao and demanded to be included in the mixed patrols. After intervention by MINUSMA, the group agreed to withdraw. In a statement issued on 8 December, CMFPR-II and the Mouvement populaire pour le salut de l'Azawad condemned their exclusion from the mixed patrols and repudiated all measures taken to implement the agreement that did not involve them. On 10 December, members of the Malian armed forces began registration at the Mechanism site in Gao. The vetting, screening and registration of Platform combatants began on 11 December. As at 22 December, 200 soldiers and 176 Platform members had joined the Mechanism in Gao and begun training for the mixed patrols. At the time of writing, the CMA combatants were expected to arrive in the coming days. On 20 December, about 50 armed members of CMFPR-II briefly gathered at the Mechanism site in Gao and demanded to take part in the mixed patrols. Following engagement by the Mission, they left the site. MINUSMA and the United Nations Children's Fund are working closely to identify and protect children associated with these armed groups.
B. Other developments
15. The Government has developed, with the support of MINUSMA, a set of benchmarks and timelines to assess the progress of the signatory parties towards the implementation of the agreement (see annex I).
16. The restoration of State authority in the north and the centre of the country remains challenging. An increase of 4 per cent (from 33 to 37 per cent) in the number of State officials deployed to the northern regions notwithstanding, the Governor of Taoudenni was based in Timbuktu owing to the limited infrastructure in Taoudenni, while the Governor of Kidal was not able to deploy owing to security concerns. In the central region of Mopti, the Governor advised government officials deployed in some areas to conduct their duties from the regional capital in the light of the deteriorating security situation.
17. Early in November, the committee of experts for the revision of the Constitution submitted a draft revised constitution to the Government, following a series of consultations with political parties, signatory armed groups, civil society organizations and traditional leaders. Proposed therein are changes to the Constitution, including the creation of a senate, as envisaged in the agreement.
18. On 4 November, the President appointed the Ombudsman of Mali, Baba Hakim Haidara, to head the committee for the preparation of the national reconciliation conference. As envisaged in the agreement, the conference is expected to facilitate national reconciliation by addressing the root causes of the conflict and generating consensus on the way forward. The conference was initially planned for December, but has been postponed.
C. Regional developments
19. There were security incidents in the countries neighbouring Mali, including in northern Burkina Faso and the western part of the Niger, close to the borders with Mali, in which assailants attacked civilians and defence and security forces, among others. In one such incident, 22 members of the security forces of the Niger were killed and several others injured in an attack against a security post at a refugee hosting area in Tazalit on 6 October. On 7 October, the Minister of Defence of the Niger implied that the Haut Conseil pour l'unité de l'Azawad, part of CMA, was responsible for the attack, along with terrorist groups. On 8 October, CMA denied its involvement. On 16 December, unidentified armed men attacked a military post in Nassoumbou, Burkina Faso, some 30 km from the Malian border, killing 12 soldiers.
20. On 20 October, MINUSMA held a meeting with military representatives of the Group of Five for the Sahel and presented the terms of reference for the deployment of their liaison officers to the Mission. In addition, MINUSMA took part in and supported various regional security initiatives, including a workshop on preventing radicalization and violent extremism in the Sahel, co-sponsored by the High Representative of the African Union for Mali and the Sahel, held in Bamako from 11 to 13 October.
21. From 9 to 11 November, MINUSMA hosted a team of independent consultants reviewing the United Nations integrated strategy for the Sahel. Discussions focused on the creation of a regional environment that would favour the implementation of the peace process and the mandate of MINUSMA, as well as the Mission's stabilization efforts in close collaboration with the United Nations Office for West Africa and the Sahel.
22. From 18 October to 2 November, Malian and French forces conducted an operation along the Mauritanian border to reduce terrorist activities.
III. Major security developments
23. The security situation in the northern and central regions remained volatile pending the implementation of the political and security arrangements envisaged in the agreement and in the light of the limited deployment of the Malian defence and security forces and State authorities. With a view to countering attacks against civilians and United Nations personnel, MINUSMA endeavoured to maintain the more robust and proactive posture assumed since the adoption of its new mandate, the force's substantial capability shortfalls notwithstanding.
A. Asymmetric and other attacks
24. Asymmetric attacks continued to target Malian, French and MINUSMA forces, using complex attack tactics, suicide vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices, roadside bombs and mortars/rockets. A total of 25 attacks were perpetrated against the Malian defence and security forces and 29 against MINUSMA, compared with 39 and 27, respectively, in the previous reporting period. In total, 15 members of the Malian defence and security forces were killed and 33 injured in attacks, compared with 52 killed and 72 injured in the previous reporting period. Furthermore, 3 peacekeepers were killed and 25 injured, compared with 13 killed and 32 injured in the previous reporting period.
25. On 3 October, assailants fired three mortar bombs towards the MINUSMA camp in Aguelhok, Kidal region. Two MINUSMA military vehicles responding to the attack struck an explosive device, killing two peacekeepers and injuring seven others. On 30 October, a mortar attack against the MINUSMA camp in Kidal damaged three medium utility helicopters. Ansar Eddine claimed responsibility for the attack, saying that it had targeted the French forces. On 6 November, a MINUSMA logistics convoy hit a roadside bomb and armed assailants then opened fire on it, killing a peacekeeper and injuring eight others. Two Malian civilians following but not part of the convoy were also killed. On 29 November, assailants drove two vehicles laden with explosives into the Gao airport. One detonated, injuring two private security guards and destroying MINUSMA facilities. Six MINUSMA aircraft (five helicopters and a fixed-wing aeroplane) were also damaged. Al Mourabitoun claimed responsibility for the attack. On the same day, two rockets landed near the Timbuktu airport. Al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb claimed responsibility, saying that its target was the "airport of the French forces".
26. On 13 October, assailants attacked the Malian armed forces after a military vehicle hit an explosive device 35 km north-east of Diabali, Segou region, killing four soldiers and injuring seven others. Ansar Eddine claimed responsibility for the attack. On 6 December, in another attack claimed by Ansar Eddine, eight assailants attacked the prison in Niono, Segou region, freeing 93 prisoners, who allegedly included members of violent extremist groups, and seizing weapons, ammunition and motorbikes. A prison guard was killed.
27. On 8 October, a military chief of staff of the Haut Conseil pour l'unite de l'Azawad, Cheikh Ag Aoussa, was killed some 3 00 m from the MINUSMA camp in Kidal when his vehicle exploded after leaving a security coordination meeting there. The United Nations has launched an investigation into the circumstances leading to his death.
B. Protection of civilians
28. Major physical threats to civilians included armed banditry; targeted attacks by armed individuals often resulting from political dynamics, including during the local elections; mines, improvised explosive devices and explosive remnants of war; collateral damage to civilians caused by clashes between splinter armed groups; and attacks by violent extremists, terrorists and State actors. Retaliation by armed individuals against civilians suspected of cooperating with the Government or MINUSMA persisted.
29. In response to such threats, the MINUSMA force continued to carry out medium-range and long-range patrols, monitor checkpoints and conduct reconnaissance flights with a focus on protecting civilians. The Mission also established helicopter refuelling points in some camps to enhance its ability to react rapidly to reported threats to civilians. It conducted monthly coordinated operations with the Malian armed forces in the I-n-Tillit area, Gao region, and near Goundam, Timbuktu region. The operations were aimed at detecting armed elements, enhancing intelligence gathering and reaching out to the local population. MINUSMA police officers conducted 293 patrols jointly with their Malian counterparts.
30. MINUSMA monitored intercommunal tensions in the Mopti region, mainly between the Fulani and Dogon communities. On 10 November, the Malian authorities reported a clash between young people from the two communities in Bankass in which seven people were injured. On 9 December, the leader of a Dogon self-defence group based in the region informed the Mission that the group had been reactivated in the light of the increasing insecurity there.
C. Support to the Malian defence and security forces
31. MINUSMA continued to assist the operations of the armed forces, including with regard to surveillance and reconnaissance, air support and medical evacuation. Nevertheless, the Malian defence and security forces have not yet completed their redeployment plan for the centre and the north of the country pursuant to which the Mission could assess its support. A response to the Mission's offer of co-location in the MINUSMA camp in Lere, Timbuktu region, remains pending.
32. MINUSMA continued to provide assistance to the Malian police, gendarmerie, National Guard, civil protection authorities and customs authorities, including training on countering suicide bombings and the management of crime scenes involving improvised explosive devices and operational support in efforts to combat serious organized crime and terrorism. MINUSMA continued to assist the Government in making its specialized unit on terrorism and transnational organized crime operational. The Mission and the United Nations Development Programme continued their joint support for the development of a national strategy for the prevention of violent extremism and countering terrorism.
33. Between 18 and 20 October, the Government completed the revision of the national border policy with the support of the European Union Common Security and Defence Policy mission in Mali and MINUSMA. In the revised policy emphasis is laid on the need for enhanced security cooperation with neighbouring countries and the strengthening of infrastructure and basic services in the border areas.
D. Mine action, weapons and small arms
34. Since January 2015, at least two civilians have been affected every month by accidents caused by explosive remnants of war, with children accounting for 80 per cent of the victims. The Mine Action Service raised awareness about explosive hazards in conflict-affected communities in central and northern Mali, reaching some 18,420 people. MINUSMA and partners trained 17 personnel of the Malian defence and security forces in the management of humanitarian demining and 79 others in explosive ordnance awareness and disposal. The Mission refurbished four storage facilities for weapons and ammunition.
IV. Human rights situation
35. MINUSMA documented 104 cases of human rights violations and abuses involving at least 235 victims, including 13 children, compared with 117 cases and at least 202 victims in the previous reporting period. The cases involved 7 instances of execution; 1 of forced disappearance; 8 of ill-treatment or torture; 1 of sexual violence; 1 of recruitment of child soldiers; 2 of forced displacement; 4 of abduction; 21 of illegal detention or arbitrary arrest, involving 57 individuals; 4 of lack of due process as a result of ineffective investigations; 7 of infringements of the right to vote; 38 of extortion or looting; and 2 of intimidation. There were also eight direct attacks against humanitarian or peacekeeping personnel. Most cases were documented in the Kidal and Timbuktu regions. The main alleged perpetrators of human rights violations and abuses remain members of the Platform and CMA, accounting for 36 and 30 cases, respectively, while the Malian defence and security forces and the Malian judicial authorities are allegedly responsible for 21 cases.
36. Unlawful arrests in relation to the conflict, including for alleged terrorist activities, continued to be reported nationwide. A total of 23 individuals were detained by the Malian armed forces and gendarmerie illegally, without arrest warrants or beyond the legally permitted length. On the basis of the available information, the detention of 20 individuals by the French forces needs to be clarified. An information-sharing mechanism was established to address cases of arrests by international forces, including the French forces. As at 22 December, 249 conflict-related detainees, including 190 detained for terrorism-related charges, remained in State-run detention facilities. Among them were five children. The illegal detention of individuals by signatory armed groups continued. CMA and the Platform have arrested at least 73 additional individuals and released 53, bringing the total number of detainees to 26, including those detained during previous reporting periods.
37. On 26 and 27 October, MINUSMA trained representatives of six ministries on conflict-related sexual violence and helped to identify prevention measures to be implemented by the ministries. As at 22 December, 113 cases of conflict-related sexual violence filed since November 2014 in Bamako had yet to be processed by the Government. Since 2014, only 37 victims have been heard by judges. MINUSMA continued to assist with the finalization of an action plan aimed at eradicating sexual violence by Platform members.
38. The Ministry for the Advancement of Women, Children and Families validated, with the support of MINUSMA and partners, strategic guidance on the identification, separation and reintegration of children associated with armed forces and armed groups for the national strategy on the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of children.
39. On 16 November, the Council of Ministers endorsed the national policy on human rights, focusing on human rights promotion and protection, assistance to human rights actors and international human rights cooperation. The Ministry of Justice and Human Rights subsequently established a human rights department within the Ministry to implement the policy. During the monthly consultations with the Ministry, MINUSMA submitted alleged human rights violations that it had documented. In collaboration with the European Union Training Mission in Mali and the European Union Common Security and Defence Policy mission in Mali, MINUSMA continued to train members of the Malian defence and security forces, including 180 soldiers, 2,185 police officers, 14 police instructors and 60 corrections officers, on human rights and international humanitarian law.
40. On 30 November, the trial began of Captain Amadou Haya Sanogo and 17 others accused of crimes during the coup d'etat in 2012. It has, however, been repeatedly postponed owing to a lack of due process, a boycott by lawyers and the absence of defence witnesses.
41. Pursuant to the human rights due diligence policy, MINUSMA initiated the human rights screening of 600 members of the Operational Coordination Mechanism, 75 representatives of the interim authorities and 29 regional officials of the Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission. MINUSMA has also developed a training programme on human rights and international humanitarian law for members of the Mechanism.
42. MINUSMA continued to provide technical advice to the Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission, including on the confidentiality and security of victims of conflict-related sexual violence interviewed by the Commission, and on reparations that they may receive. The Commission's regional offices in Bamako and Segou opened on 1 December, followed by the office in Mopti on 13 December. The office in Gao, for the regions of Gao and Menaka, and the office in Timbuktu, for the regions of Taoudenni and Timbuktu, opened on 15 December. The office in Kidal did not open owing to security concerns.
V. Humanitarian situation
43. Persistent insecurity, recurrent food insecurity, chronic poverty, the limited presence of State authorities and inadequate basic social services, coupled with clashes between the signatory armed groups, led to a further deterioration in the humanitarian situation in the northern and central regions. Meanwhile, seasonal flooding of the Niger River affected 18,000 people, mainly in the Mopti and Timbuktu regions, and destroyed 2,400 houses and 790 latrines. Humanitarian actors worked with the Government to distribute relief items. Nevertheless, as at 22 December, only $134.5 million (38 per cent) of the total amount of $354 million required for the humanitarian response plan for 2016 had been financed.
44. Humanitarian actors continued to be victims of criminal activities, such as theft of vehicles and equipment, in the northern and central regions. As at 22 December, 29 security incidents involving humanitarian actors had been reported, mainly in the northern regions, compared with 20 incidents in the previous reporting period. Humanitarian actors continued to negotiate access and security guarantees with armed groups in the Kidal and Menaka regions and advocated respect for humanitarian principles by all parties. On 13 October, convoys carrying food rations to Kidal arrived for the first time since June under MINUSMA military escort. The Mission also facilitated humanitarian assistance to Kidal by flying humanitarian personnel. To improve accessibility, MINUSMA plans to again repair the airstrip in Kidal, which was destroyed by protesters in April, should it receive the necessary security guarantees.
45. During the reporting period, 109 additional schools were closed, bringing the total number of closed schools in the conflict-affected areas of the Gao, Kidal, Menaka, Mopti, Segou and Timbuktu regions to 405 of 2,380 schools. On 17 October, the Governor of Kidal officially visited Kidal for the first time since his appointment on 23 March to open the academic year in the region. Humanitarian actors continued to support the Government to reopen schools in the north.
46. A national food security and nutrition assessment estimated that 25 per cent of the Malian population remained food insecure. The moderate acute malnutrition rate fell to 14.3 per cent in the Timbuktu region, where the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Food Programme implemented resilience-building activities, working with farmer organizations. Following the outbreak of Rift Valley fever in the Niger, declared on 20 September, the Government, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization conducted an assessment mission to the Menaka region from 22 to 30 October and supported the local authorities in taking preventive measures and preparing for a potential outbreak. MINUSMA provided logistical and security support. On 2 December, the Minister of Energy and Water and the Governor of Kidal visited Kidal to assess electricity and water supply needs.
47. Since my previous report (S/2016/819), the number of internally displaced persons has fallen by 6 per cent, to some 36,700 as at 31 October. The number of Malian refugees residing in Burkina Faso, Mauritania and the Niger increased from some 134,000 to 136,000. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) constructed and restored 850 shelters in the Gao, Menaka, Mopti and Timbuktu regions and facilitated the voluntary return of 478 refugees. In the Gao, Mopti and Timbuktu regions, UNHCR supported the Government in providing cash-based assistance to 2,437 returnees, while the International Organization for Migration implemented several community stabilization projects, including the rehabilitation of health centres, primary schools and water sources.
48. In the Gao, Menaka and Timbuktu regions, UNHCR raised the awareness of 832 returnees and the local population of sexual and gender-based violence. In the Gao, Mopti and Timbuktu regions, the United Nations Population Fund provided psychosocial support to survivors of sexual and gender-based violence; as a result, 175 survivors received psychosocial support and 82 post-rape kits were distributed.
VI. Economic development and cultural preservation
49. In the absence of Malian regional development agencies and as a result of the limited presence of State authority in the northern regions, the population has limited access to basic social services. The lack of a development strategy for the north constrained the disbursement of pledges made at the international conference for the economic recovery and development of Mali, held in Paris on 22 October 2015.
50. From 1 to 3 November, a joint assessment mission by the United Nations and the International Organization for Migration visited the Liptako-Gourma region and the border areas with Burkina Faso and the Niger to identify cross-border threats to peace and security that could be tackled by community-based solutions. On the basis of the assessment, a Peacebuilding Fund cross-border project has been developed and is awaiting approval by the three Governments.
51. On 18 November, the Peacebuilding Fund extended an additional amount of $1.5 million for three projects to be implemented by MINUSMA and the United Nations country team in Gao and Timbuktu in support of the peace process. The projects will continue support for teaching schoolchildren about peaceful conflict resolution, employment of young people and women and efforts to combat gender-based violence. In December, the Fund approved $2.4 million for youth and gender initiatives to be implemented by MINUSMA, the United Nations country team and non-governmental organizations.
52. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, with the support of MINUSMA, continued to rehabilitate cultural heritage sites, especially in Timbuktu. On 1 December, it and MINUSMA began to rehabilitate three private libraries of ancient manuscripts in Timbuktu; the physical conservation of the manuscripts is continuing. The rehabilitation of the three mosques designated as world heritage in Timbuktu continued.
VII. Capacities of the Mission
53. On 15 December, the Secretariat approved the updated mission concept for MINUSMA. Following the adoption of resolution 2295 (2016), in which the Security Council encouraged the keeping of the mission concept under constant review, MINUSMA aligned the existing document with its new mandate. The following three interrelated objectives were identified in the revised mission concept:
(a) To ensure a sustainable, credible and inclusive peace process to accelerate the implementation of the peace agreement;
(b) To improve security, including support for the redeployment of the Malian defence and security forces;
(c) To reach full operational capacity, including capacity to protect and sustain the mission, and conduct priority tasks in key areas.
54. A number of required capabilities remain unfulfilled, while pledges continue to fall short of these capabilities, mainly in self-sustainment and major equipment.
55. As at 22 December, the strength of the military component of MINUSMA stood at 10,791 personnel, or 81 per cent of the authorized strength of 13,289. Women accounted for 1.6 per cent of the force. A number of critical capability gaps remain. With the departure of military helicopters currently in Gao in January/February 2017, MINUSMA will require four helicopter units to reach the required number of six (one attack helicopter unit and one medium utility helicopter unit for Gao, one attack helicopter unit for Kidal and one medium utility helicopter unit for Timbuktu). The Mission still requires an intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance company for Kidal, an airfield support unit for Gao and Timbuktu, a special forces company for Timbuktu, an explosive ordnance disposal company for Timbuktu and a combat convoy battalion. Pending the deployment of the battalion, infantry units escort the Mission's logistics convoys, which significantly constrains the military component's ability to perform mandated tasks. The shortage of armoured personnel carriers – 99 are still required – remains a major constraint. Preparation continued for the redeployment of the quick reaction force in the United Nations Operations in Côte d'Ivoire to MINUSMA. The advance party is scheduled to deploy to Mopti by mid-February 2017.
56. As at 22 December, the strength of the police component of MINUSMA stood at 1,260 personnel, reaching 66 per cent of its authorized strength of 1,920 with 83 per cent of individual police officers (15 per cent of them women) and 62 per cent of formed police unit personnel (5 per cent of them women) deployed. The deployment of a special intervention team is under way. Pledges were received for the four outstanding formed police units, which are scheduled to deploy in January and February 2017. MINUSMA continues to require additional 59 individual police officers, 20 armoured personnel carriers, 11 armoured cars for individual police officers and specialized skills in forensics, counter-terrorism, improvised explosive devices, serious organized crime and drug trafficking, and small arms and light weapons.
57. As at 22 December, 86 per cent of all MINUSMA civilian staff had deployed, including 87 per cent of international staff, 87 per cent of United Nations Volunteers and 84 per cent of national staff. Women held 27 per cent of the international posts, 31 per cent of United Nations Volunteer positions and 19 per cent of national staff posts.
Camp construction and securing supply routes
58. A number of continuing construction projects were delayed owing to the volatile security environment and the slow supply of construction materials. MINUSMA is according priority to the construction of hard-wall accommodation for military personnel deployed in the north. The construction of camps is continuing for formed police units to be deployed in Douentza, Goundam and Menaka. To accommodate civilian personnel living in a dedicated zone around the Mission's camp in Mopti, the Mission plans to upgrade the camp to an integrated camp, which includes accommodation. In the meantime, the Mission has accorded priority to preparations to receive the quick reaction force in Mopti. The construction of the MINUSMA operational base in Bamako is 80 per cent completed, while the Timbuktu integrated camp is 70 per cent completed. The new Gao logistics hub is 75 per cent completed and has begun operations.
59. The Mission's logistics convoys continued to face asymmetric threats in northern Mali. Efforts to open a southern supply route to Gao from Cotonou, Benin, through Niamey are continuing, in consultation with the respective Governments.
VIII. Safety and security of United Nations personnel
60. During the reporting period, 29 security incidents involving United Nations civilian personnel occurred. Five peacekeepers lost their lives: two in the Kidal region on 3 October and another in the Mopti region on 6 November in attacks; one in a traffic accident; and one as a result of illness. There were 29 attacks against humanitarian actors. Asymmetric attacks, terrorism and crime continued to pose threats and security risks to United Nations staff, premises and operations. MINUSMA adjusted its security posture to adapt to the fluid security situation, including by building stronger anti-blast and protected shelters to counter the threat posed by indirect fire. The Mission also updated its contingency plans and pre-positioned safety and security units.
61. Nevertheless, significant challenges remain with regard to the Mission's civilian medical evacuation teams owing to limited availability and difficulty in operating in high-risk conditions, which caused delays in responding to incidents. MINUSMA still urgently requires aeromedical evacuation teams in Mopti and Tessalit, where specialized search and rescue assets have been already positioned, to ensure that dedicated helicopters for casualty evacuation are available within a one-hour radius of Mission activities.
IX. Conduct and discipline
62. There have been no new allegations of sexual exploitation and abuse since my previous report. The two allegations mentioned in that report, received in January and June 2016, are still pending investigation, the former with the relevant troop-contributing country and the latter with the United Nations. MINUSMA continued its prevention activities, including outreach and public information activities concerning the expected standard of conduct for United Nations personnel, especially the policy on zero tolerance of sexual exploitation and abuse.
63. The peace process in Mali is at a critical juncture. Notwithstanding some progress made over the past 18 months since the signing of the peace agreement, the signatory parties continue to disagree on key interim measures, thus stalling the process for all other provisions. Although the peace process is complex and challenging, it behoves the signatory parties to act promptly and decisively to fulfil their obligations to the Malian people. With only six months left until the end of the interim period stipulated in the agreement, I strongly urge all parties to immediately cease fighting and resume a constructive dialogue. The signatory parties must make full use of the potential offered by the follow-up mechanisms provided for in the agreement, including through sustained involvement and higher-level representation, to resolve differences and demonstrate their commitment to the peace process. To this end, while the international community, including the mediation team, has shown dedicated support for the implementation of the agreement, it must redouble its efforts and use its full political weight to ensure the commitment of signatory parties and achieve immediate results on the ground. Should the dialogue fail, I call upon the Security Council to consider, in the coming months, the imposition of targeted sanctions against those who obstruct the implementation of the agreement.
64. I congratulate the Government of Mali for holding the first local elections since 2009 amid considerable political, security and logistical challenges. I regret that polls were not held in the Kidal, Menaka and Taoudenni regions, as well as some parts of the Gao, Mopti and Timbuktu regions, owing to security incidents and obstruction, including in areas controlled by signatory armed groups. In the run-up to the elections, I noted the objections expressed by opposition parties and the signatory armed groups. All stakeholders must work to narrow differences and find common ground. Reaching consensus will require inclusive, interactive and constructive approaches. As the Malian people prepare for district and regional elections and a constitutional referendum in 2017, I strongly encourage the Government to engage actively with relevant stakeholders and ensure a dialogue that leads to inclusivity and consensus. The United Nations stands ready to continue to support the effort.
65. The limited progress in putting in place the security arrangements foreseen in the agreement has facilitated the spread of insecurity from the far north to the centre of Mali, with terrorist and violent extremist groups expanding their activities and consolidating their presence. The growing insecurity in the border areas with Burkina Faso and the Niger, together with the continued impact of drug trafficking on peace efforts, demonstrates, once again, the need for enhanced regional cooperation to take on security threats. To reverse these negative trends of violence, I urge the Government to redouble its efforts to progressively redeploy the Malian defence and security forces and re-establish State authority nationwide. It is critical for all Malian parties to accelerate the implementation of the security provisions of the agreement in order to regain public confidence in the peace process and prevent the spread of violent extremism. I also encourage Member States in the subregion to strengthen their efforts to help to resolve political and security issues in Mali through mediation efforts and active engagement in the follow-up mechanisms of the agreement. Given the multiplicity of regional initiatives, it is important that Member States coordinate their efforts, including to combat drug trafficking with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and in the framework of the United Nations integrated strategy for the Sahel. The United Nations remains committed to collaborating with regional mechanisms, including the Nouakchott Process on the enhancement of security cooperation and the operationalization of the African Peace and Security Architecture in the Sahelo-Saharan region and the Group of Five for the Sahel.
66. I strongly condemn the continued attacks by violent extremists and terrorists against civilians, signatory armed groups, the Malian and French forces and MINUSMA personnel, who remain the target of asymmetric attacks. I reiterate that these attacks targeting United Nations peacekeepers constitute war crimes under international law and call for the perpetrators to be brought to justice. I also express my most heartfelt condolences to the bereaved families and the Governments of those concerned, as well as to the people and the Government of Mali who continue to suffer losses.
67. The precarious security situation underscores the relevance of the interim measures contained in the agreement and the urgency of putting them into effect. I call upon the Government to demonstrate political leadership to bring all parties together to establish the interim authorities in earnest and to launch the Operational Coordination Mechanism to help the signatory armed groups to move forward with cantonment. I welcome the recent appointment by the Government of the members of interim authorities and transitional councils, in addition special advisers for the northern regions. I urge the signatory armed groups to resolve outstanding issues constructively and unblock the impasse to launch the mixed patrols.
68. The United Nations remains committed to supporting the signatory parties in their full and effective implementation of the agreement, including through the benchmarks developed by the Government with the assistance of MINUSMA. I count on the Government's leadership to ensure the endorsement of the benchmarks by the other signatory parties and generate new momentum for the accelerated and inclusive implementation of the agreement. All parties must do their part. I encourage the signatory parties to once again recognize their important responsibilities and actively pursue the achievement of the benchmarks in a timely manner.
69. I deeply regret that no woman was appointed to the interim authorities, while just one sits on a transitional council and only two were selected as special advisers to State representatives in northern regions. I also note with concern the exclusion of women and young people in the implementation of the agreement. Both women and young people in Mali have played active roles that affect the peace process, including as mediators at the community level and as members of civil defence groups protecting their communities from armed attacks. Their empowerment and participation contribute decisively to the success of the peace process, to conflict prevention and the likelihood of sustainable peace. I therefore urge all Malian stakeholders to more actively ensure the participation and leadership of women and young people in every aspect of the implementation of the agreement, including in the preparation process for the national reconciliation conference. I congratulate the women who ran for office in the local elections on 20 November, thereby making the new gender law, under which a 30 per cent quota for women candidates in elections was established, a reality. I applaud the fact that women accounted for 30 per cent of the people elected in Bamako and the Gao region.
70. Interim measures must be sustained by a solid foundation that steers Mali into long-term peace and stability. I call upon the Government to accelerate efforts to complete a national strategy designed to reform the security sector, in addition to the establishment of the integration criteria that would enable members of the signatory armed groups to join security institutions. It is critical that the Government clarify its plans for security sector reform in order to sustain the engagement of the signatory armed groups in the peace process. I welcome the progress made in the revision of the Constitution and look forward to its completion. Moving forward, the organization of the national reconciliation conference will be a crucial opportunity to find political solutions through a wide-ranging discussion that addresses the drivers of conflict and makes the peace process truly inclusive of all Malians in all Mali. I strongly urge the Government to ensure a genuine reconciliation process that reaches all levels of society. Addressing the root causes of the conflict remains a key requirement to ensure national reconciliation.
71. The human rights situation remains of concern. I strongly condemn human rights violations and abuses committed by State actors, armed groups, extremist groups and others. I urge all parties concerned to respect international human rights law and international humanitarian law, in addition to their obligations under the agreement. I welcome the opening of the regional offices of the Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission in several regions, but regret that little progress has been made in the Government's efforts to combat impunity. I encourage the Government to swiftly operationalize the remaining regional offices, including in Kidal, and deploy officials so that they can begin to engage with victims. The United Nations stands ready to assist the work of the Commission, as well as the establishment of the international commission of inquiry.
72. I remain concerned by the limited availability of basic social services in northern and central Mali, where chronic humanitarian needs persist. I deplore the blocking of supplies following the outbreak of hostilities between CMA and the Platform, which exacerbated the humanitarian situation in Kidal. I urge the signatory parties to resolve differences in the framework of the agreement and not to take civilians hostage as part of their disagreements. The window of opportunity for the Government to demonstrate peace dividends is slowly narrowing, given that the agreement has yet to provide them in the social and economic terms that the Malian people were expecting. I strongly encourage the Government to sustain its efforts to expand the coverage of basic social services in the northern and central regions to ensure that conflict-affected communities benefit from those dividends. Strengthening the delivery of services in remote locations and reaching the marginalized is critical to prevent the excluded communities from being disfranchised. I urge the Government to implement the development strategy for the north, which was expected to be finalized following the international conference for the economic recovery and development of Mali held in October 2015. I also reiterate my call upon the Government to make progress with the sustainable development fund to which it pledged to contribute €450 million from 2016 to 2018.
73. MINUSMA continues to operate in an extremely challenging environment, constantly faced with threats of violent asymmetric attacks. Significant operational difficulties are likely to continue in the current political and security context marked by insecurity, drug trafficking and terrorism. Consequently, the Mission uses a substantial part of its resources to protect itself and sustain its presence. I encourage all troop- and police-contributing countries and bilateral donors to step up their efforts to ensure that the Mission has the equipment and resources that it needs, including urgently required helicopter units, an intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance company, airfield support units, a special forces company, an explosive ordnance disposal company, a combat convoy battalion, individual police officers, armoured personnel carriers and armoured cars for individual police officers. I urge the Security Council to engage actively with Member States to this end. Already diminished mobility and capacity to conduct casualty and medical evacuations owing to the departure of helicopter units and other aviation assets damaged in attacks will have a negative impact on the operational performance of the Mission.
74. Lastly, I reiterate my appreciation to my Special Representative, Mahamat Saleh Annadif, for his tireless efforts in advancing the peace process. I pay tribute to the women and men of MINUSMA and to the troop- and police-contributing countries for their dedication to the Mission and for working in such arduous locations under continued difficult conditions. I commend the members of the international mediation team for their sustained support to the Malian parties. I express my gratitude to the African Union, the Economic Community of Western African States, the European Union, bilateral partners, United Nations agencies, funds and programmes, including the Peacebuilding Fund, non-governmental organizations and all other partners, who spare no effort to contribute to peace and security in Mali.
Benchmarks for monitoring the implementation of the Agreement on Peace and Reconciliation in Mali
Objectives Progress indicators State of implementation Deadlineª Comments 1. Political and institutional matters
Significant progress in the implementation of an institutional architecture designed to guarantee the participation and inclusion of all Malian citizens and enable the restoration of State authority throughout the country
1.1 Establish an institutional architecture based on the principle of free administration and increased representation of communities within national institutions 1.1.1 The interim authorities responsible for the administration of municipalities (communes), districts (cercles) and regions in the north are operational Ongoing 2017 They have been appointed for the regions but are not yet in place 1.1.2 The Government of Mali has established territorial communities, elected through universal suffrage and with extensive authority, by amending Act No. 93-008 on free administration and Act No. 2012-006 on the administrative organization of the territory Ongoing 2017 The texts have been drafted but not yet approved 1.1.3 For every region the Government has established a Regional Assembly, elected by direct universal suffrage, to which authorities and resources have been transferred Ongoing 2017 Related to the adoption of texts 1.2 Define the authorities of territorial communities by specifying their respective roles and responsibilities, and those of the State 1.2.1 The Government has ensured that each region is able to establish and manage collective infrastructure and basic social services Implemented 1.2.2 Every region has developed an economic, social and cultural development plan and will be responsible for land management Implemented 1.2.3 Every region is responsible for establishing and implementing a tax system suited to its economic structure and development objectives, in accordance with current legislation Not implemented 2. Defence and security aspects
Implementation and progressive functioning of inclusive defence and security forces that are accountable to citizens and comply with human rights and the rule of law, thereby strengthening national cohesion and contributing to the promotion of regional security
2.1 Implement reform of the security and defence sectors 2.1.1 Decrees are adopted defining the make-up, role and operation of the National Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Commission, the Commission on Integration and the National Council for Security Sector Reform Ongoing The decrees are under review following complaints from movements about non-compliance with quotas 2.1.2 The National Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Commission, the Commission on Integration and the National Council for Security Sector Reform are established in an inclusive manner and are operational Ongoing The Commissions have been set up but are not operational 2.1.3 The National Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Commission, the Commission on Integration and the National Council for Security Sector Reform have developed a new national vision of defence and security, taking relevant local, national and international factors into account 2.2 Implement cantonment and disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) programmes for combatants, in accordance with the guiding principles of the Agreement on Peace and Reconciliation in Mali and in keeping with international standards 2.2.1 The National Disarmament, Ongoing Demobilization and Reintegration Commission has drawn up a national DDR and cantonment programme, with the support of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) and other partners Ongoing The programme has been drawn up for approval. A round table with donors has been organized 2.2.2 The Commission on Integration has set Ongoing up a support programme which defines the measures necessary for the reintegration of ex-combatants and takes into account cross-cutting issues (gender, human rights and the protection of civilians) Ongoing First half of 2017 2.3 Reconstitute and progressively redeploy defence and security forces throughout national territory 2.3.1 The Technical Commission on Security Implemented and the Operational Coordination Mechanism have submitted an implementation plan for security arrangements in the north, with the deployment of joint patrols to provide security for the cantonment and DDR process Implemented 2.3.2 Under the aegis of the Operational Ongoing Coordination Mechanism, joint units of combatants from signatory parties and the defence and security forces, including special counter-terrorist units, are operational and carrying out joint patrols that contribute to the restoration of security Ongoing First half of 2017 2.3.3 The gradual redeployment throughout Mali of reconstituted defence and security forces is in effect and guarantees that security and public order are maintained 3. Humanitarian assist ance, socioeconomic and cultural development and the provision of basic social services
Establishment of structures and mechanisms designed to achieve inclusive, participatory and sustainable local development
3.1 Create the conditions necessary to facilitate the return, repatriation, resettlement and socioeconomic reintegration of all displaced persons and refugees; enable communities to benefit from peace dividends; and strengthen social cohesion and humanitarian assistance 3.1.1 Establishment of monitoring mechanisms for displaced persons and refugees, in accordance with regional and international instruments Ongoing Progress made:
- Signature of two protocols with the International Organization for Migration and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to monitor population movements and register returnees
- Signature of tripartite agreements with Burkina Faso, Mauritania, Niger and UNHCR for the repatriation of Malian refugees
- Signature by UNHCR of a protocol to facilitate support for voluntary repatriation
- Establishment of national coordination for repatriation, with the support of UNHCR
- Creation of 28 entry points for the registration of refugees
- Creation of a database
- Publication of
3.1.2 Neutral and impartial humanitarian assistance is delivered in areas impacted by the crisis to those most vulnerable (residents, returnees, displaced or repatriated persons), enhancing their means of subsistence and resilience Ongoing Progress made:
- Provision of tents, blankets, mattresses and treated mosquito nets
- Establishment of a credit line to fund income-generating activities
- Supplies of cereals and foodstuffs to communities
- Provision of cattle feed and emergency kits
- Signature of a memorandum of understanding with the Food Security Commission for the provision of 1,500 tons of cereals to meet humanitarian and social needs
3.1.3 With the support of humanitarian and development partners under the 2015-2017 emergency humanitarian plan and the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF+), peace dividends are brought to communities in order to reduce socioeconomic disparities among regions, with increased access to basic services in the poorest regions Ongoing Progress made:
- Nine sites have been developed in the northern regions (nine water towers equipped with solar pumps; the drilling and equipping of boreholes; the construction of a storage dam; the rehabilitation of a well; the rehabilitation of two community health centres; the construction of a school with three classrooms; and the construction of a health centre)
- Provision of solar kits and cattle feed
3.2 Mobilize the resources necessary to implement the specific development strategy for the northern regions of Mali 3.2.1 Establishment of a northern development Ongoing zone with an Interregional Advisory Council, comprising representatives of Regional Assemblies, and with a specific development strategy relevant to the sociocultural and geographic realities and the climate of the region Ongoing The development zone's governance bodies will be established once the new regional councils have been established The process of setting this up is under way. A draft text is being drawn up 3.2.2 Establishment of a sustainable Ongoing development fund, comprising the resources pledged during the International Conference for the Economic Recovery and Development of Mali, held in October 2015, with the support of technical and financial partners Ongoing 2017 The draft text establishing the fund is in the process of being validated 3.2.3 Establishment of a regional development Ongoing agency in each region for programme management and monitoring implementation of the commitments undertaken by the Government to benefit the regions, under the authority of the President of the Regional Assembly Ongoing The agencies have been created 3.2.4 Programme agreements are concluded Ongoing between the State and the regions for the implementation of multi-year investment programmes, with the participation of the territorial communities concerned Ongoing 2016 Contract plans have been signed between the State and the regions of Timbuktu, Kidal and Mopti. Only the one for Gao has yet to be signed 4. Justice and Reconciliation
Prevent impunity and promote genuine national reconciliation by ensuring legal and judicial assistance and access through the implementation of transitional justice mechanisms and comprehensive justice sector reform, in accordance with international norms and standards
4.1 Organize a national reconciliation conference on the underlying causes of the conflict 4.1.1 An inclusive national reconciliation conference on the underlying causes of the conflict is organized, with the support of the Agreement Monitoring Committee, to ensure genuine national reconciliation Ongoing March 2017 The Republic's Ombudsman has been appointed by the President to organize the conference 4.1.2 A Charter for Peace, Unity and National Reconciliation is drawn up on the basis of consensus and based on the outcomes of the national reconciliation conference Not implemented Related to the national reconciliation conference 4.2 Establish transitional justice mechanisms 4.2.1 The Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission is operational and has regional offices throughout the country Implemented 4.2.2 The international commission of inquiry is established and operational Ongoing 4.3 Reform the justice system and strengthen the rule of law in order to enhance traditional and informal justice mechanisms, improve access to justice for perpetrators and victims, and end impunity 4.3.1 The justice system is strengthened to improve access to justice for perpetrators and victims Ongoing 4.3.2 The perpetrators of human rights violations are prosecuted and convicted in accordance with international norms and standards Ongoing 4.3.3 The victims of human rights violations, including sexual or gender-based violence, are treated fairly by the justice system, receive reparations and benefit from new judicial protection measures Ongoing 4.3.4 Traditional and customary mechanisms are integrated into the justice system, without prejudice to the sovereign right of the State Ongoing 4.3.5 Institutions regulating and protecting specific rights, such as freedom of expression, of the press and of communication, are in place or strengthened and work effectively Implemented 4.3.6 The Anti-Corruption and Financial Crime Commission is established Implemented
ª The text boxes are empty where no information was provided.
Military and police strength of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali as at 20 December 2016
Country Military component (staff officers and units) Police component Individual police officers Formed police units Total police Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Austria 6 6 Bangladesh 1 534 1 534 136 136 136 136 Belgium 7 7 Benin 259 259 23 1 24 140 140 163 1 164 Bhutan 3 3 Bosnia and Herzegovina 2 2 Burkina Faso 1 671 50 1 721 27 1 28 133 7 140 160 8 168 Burundi 12 12 12 12 Cambodia 296 7 303 Cameroon 3 3 14 14 14 14 Chad 1 393 1 393 4 4 8 4 4 8 China 385 20 405 Côte d'Ivoire 8 8 Czechia 25 25 Democratic Republic of the Congo 5 1 6 5 1 6 Denmark 45 2 47 9 9 9 9 Djibouti 1 1 Egypt 68 68 5 5 5 5 El Salvador 84 7 91 Estonia 10 10 Ethiopia 1 1 Finland 6 6 5 5 5 5 France 22 1 23 8 8 8 8 Gambia 4 4 Germany 246 6 252 7 3 10 7 3 10 Ghana 220 220 Guinea 856 6 862 7 3 10 7 3 10 Guinea-Bissau 1 1 Hungary 1 1 1 1 Indonesia 22 22 Italy 2 2 Jordan 1 1 5 5 5 5 Kenya 4 3 7 Latvia 1 1 Liberia 44 5 49 Lithuania 4 4 Madagascar 1 1 1 1 Mauritania 5 5 Nepal 148 2 150 Netherlands 435 19 454 19 1 20 19 1 20 Niger 854 6 860 12 14 26 12 14 26 Nigeria 67 15 82 1 1 118 22 140 119 22 141 Norway 9 9 Portugal 68 68 Romania 1 1 7 7 7 7 Senegal 569 10 579 12 1 13 269 9 278 281 10 291 Sierra Leone 6 6 Sweden 265 12 277 4 3 7 4 3 7 Switzerland 6 6 2 2 2 2 Togo 910 29 939 4 8 12 134 6 140 138 14 152 Tunisia 0 46 1 47 46 1 47 Turkey 0 2 2 2 2 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 2 2 United States of America 8 2 10 Yemen 6 6 9 9 9 9 Total 10 593 202 10 795 251 41 292 930 44 974 1 181 85 1 266
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