Statement commenting on the report of the Spanish Section of Amnesty International concerning the nullity of the summary trials and Truth Commissions.

The Association of Relatives and Friends of the 2nd Republic Victims of Reprisals by the Franco Regime (afarIIREP), was founded with the underlying objective of obtaining the nullilty of the Francoist trials and the legal recognition of all the victims of the regime.

With respect to this objective:

  • 1) We have noted the publication by the Spanish Section of Amnesty International of its document entitled: "Victims of the Civil War and Francoism: there is no right" November 2006 and that it takes the position that the Francoist judgements should be reviewed.

  • 2) We are pleased that the Spanish Section of Amnesty International has developed its legal analysis of the situation concerning us, the victims of Francoism; this is a marked improvement by comparison to its first document.

  • 3) Nevertheless, given the public repercussions of the said document and the uncertainty that it caused for many of our colleagues and in other victims' associations, afarIIREP finds itself obliged, for greater clarity, to comment on some of the points raised without disregarding the right to the diversity of opinions which clearly exist with respect to our actions as an association.

    Given the foregoing, we state as follows:

  • 4) We do not and will not support any legal position which has any result other than the complete nullity of the trials of the Francoist courts. This is not only because we believe that this is the only way of achieving justice in these cases, but also because the law is with us on this matter, given that there is no doubt in law as to the illegality of the Francoist regime, either at the level of Spanish internal law or international law, and more particularly in the area of European jurisprudence.

    We would point out that the European Court of Human Rights in its decision of 17th January 2006 in the case Kolk and Kislyiy versus Estonia, has already decided on the imprescriptibility of crimes against humanity and its retroactive application and held that - in the context of a series of provisions and principles which are international in nature - Resolution 95 of the General Assembly of the United Nations, adopted on 11 December 1946 is applicable in ordinary jurisdiction, particularly where it states:"The General Assembly...confirms the principles of International Law recognised by the Charter of the Nuremberg Tribunal and the judgement of the Tribunal.."

    Similarly and for the same reasons, Resolution 39(I) of the General Assembly of 12 December 1946 is applicable, which categorised the Franco regime stating specifically: "In origin, nature, structure and general conduct, the Franco regime is a fascist regime patterned on, and established largely as a result of aid received from, Hitler's Nazi Germany and Mussolini's Fascist Italy".

  • 5) As a result, any attempt to review "errors of fact and law" has no support whatever in international law; in fact, it would suppose contravening such law. But, in our opinion, what is even more serious, is that this futile suggestion persists in considering legal the judicial decisions of an illegal regime.

  • 6) What we find particularly remarkable is that, contrary to the well known custom of Amnesty International with respect to this type of report - which would be to take particular account of what is being sought by the victims' associations - the associations have not been considered in the said report. We sincerely hope that this mistake will be rectified.

  • 7) Nor do we accept the possibility of a Truth Commission in any form for three basic reasons:

      a) Because under the rule of law what should prevail is the right to justice and due legal recognition of the victims, and this is not achieved by means of a Truth Commission.

      b) Because international law applicable in European jurisdiction mandates compliance with legal norms which a Truth Commission cannot guarantee. For this reason, we also reject any concept of what has become known as "transitional justice" as being contrary to the right to justice.

      c) Because Truth Commissions have come to mean in practice the construction of models of impunity, as has been the case in El Salvador and Guatemala, to mention just two flagrant examples, which the reports of Amnesty International itself have made evident on numerous occasions.

  • 8) As victims' associations, we uphold the view that existing international law is applicable in ordinary jurisdiction and is of mandatory compliance by the states, and further that the courts should apply the classification of crimes against humanity in cases of serious crimes against human rights as has been recognised by the European Court of Human Rights in its decision of 17 January 2006 and by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights in its judgement of 26 September 2006 (Case of Almonacid-Arellano et al. v. Chile); these decisions open the way to the use of ordinary jurisdiction to try these types of crimes, the prohibition of which is envisaged by international law currently in force.

    We also consider that this law is an indispensable element in the resulting fight against models of impunity throughout the world and we do not and will not support any system of "legal exception" or of "transitional justice" which entails categories contrary to the defence of human rights and civil liberties and which only seek to limit the reach of justice and achieve impunity for the perpetrators.

  • 9) We ratify, as we have done on various occasions, the document which sets out our demands, entitled "The question of impunity in Spain and crimes under Franco" dated 14 April 2004 and which contains the legal reasoning which is necessary and sufficient to support the specific case for the victims of Francoism. This document also contains a "Plan of Action" which includes the demands of almost all the victims' associations in Spain, demands which will not be satisfied simply by the nullity of the Francoist trials.

  • 10) We also ratify the complementary statement "Between moral cowardice and illegality" of 1 September 2006, which is a detailed response to the current governmental draft law and which has 13 statements annexed thereto..
    This statement was made by the undersigned in Madrid on 18 November 2006
    Ana Viéitez Gómez, President

    Organizations signing this statement:

    • Adellis Socio-Cultural Association (Adellís asociación - sociocultural), Silleda, Pontevedra
    • Asociación para a Dignificación das Vítimas do Fascismo (Association to give dignity to the Victims of Fascism), anuel Sarille Lenceiro and Claudio Rodríguez, Galizia (Galicia)
    • Associació por Memòria als immolats per la Llibertad a Catalunya, Pere Fortuny
    • Association of Miranda de Ebro for Historical Memory, Carlos Bajo Díez, President
    • Association of Asturias for Historical Memory, Víctor Luis Alvarez, President
    • Association of Relatives and Friends of the Killed and Buried in Margallón (Asociación de Familiares y Amigos de Asesinados y Enterrados en Margallón), Olga Alcega Madurga, President.
    • Association for the creation of an archive of the Civil War, the International Brigades, the Children of the War, the Resistance and the Spanish Exile AGE (Archive of War and Exile), Adelina Kondratieva, President and Dolores Cabra, General Secretary.
    • Ateneo Republicano de Vallecas, Madrid
    • Ateneo Republicano de Galicia - ARGA
    • Commission for Memory of Villagarcia de Arosa, Galicia
    • Commission for the Recovery of Historical Memory of a Coruña
    • Cultural Review A Taboada, Cuntis e Moraña (Revista cultural A Taboada, Cuntis e Moraña), Marcos Seixo Pastor, Galicia
    • Cultural Association "O Meigallo" de Cuntis (Asociación Cultural "O Meigallo" de Cuntis), Marcos Seixo Pastor, Galicia
    • Disappeared of the Civil War and Republican Exile (DESPAGE), Antonio Cruz González, Coordinator
    • Equipo Nizkor, Gregorio Dionis, President.
    • Forum for Memory, Aragon, Manuel Gil Prieto, President
    • Friends of the Fallen for Liberty (1939–1945), Historical Memory of the Murcia Region, Floren Dimas Balsalobre, Regional President.
    • General Association of Antifrancoist Historical Memory Studies, Francisco Martínez López, Vice President
    • Levante and Aragón Resistance Group (AGLA), Esperanza Martínez García, President, Pepe Ginés, Secretary
    • Liga Aragonesa de Mutilados e Inválidos de la Guerra Civil Española 1936/39 (Ligue of Spanish Civil War Mutilated and Disabled Persons of Aragon) Juan Luís Serrano Calleja, President
    • Luis Bello Foundation (Fundación Luis Bello), José Esteban, President.
    • Manuel Azaña Association (Asociación Manuel Azaña), Félix Rodríguez Sanz, Secretary.
    • Memory and Liberty, Tomás Montero Aparicio
    • Relatives and Friends of the "killed" and victims of reprisals at the Central de Valdenoceda prison, José María González Díaz - Medino, President
    • Republican Group of Redondela
    • Republican Circle of Zamora (CIRZA), Cándido Ruiz González, President.
    • Republican Assembly of Vigo, Cerlso X. López Pazos, President
    • Republican Group of Euskal Herria-Euskal Herriko Talde Errepublikanoa (CREH-EHTE), Iñaki Valentín, Secretary.
    • Republican Association of Irun "Nicolás Guerendiain"
    • Republican Left (Izquierda Republicana) - Isabelo Herreros, General Secretary
    • War-Exile and Historical Memory of Andalusia, Manuel Velasco Haro, President
    • War-Exile and Antifrancoist Historical Memory, José Murillo Murillo, President

    Individual signatories:

    • Bieito Alonso, Galicia
    • Alfonso Álvarez Cáccamo, profesor y escritor, Galicia
    • Xosé María Álvarez Cáccamo, Galicia
    • Graciela álvarez Portela, Galicia
    • Xoán Abeleira álvarez, poeta, Galicia.
    • Francisco Alonso Villaverde, escritor, Galicia.
    • Gonzalo Amoedo López, Galicia
    • Gerardo Antón Garrido, Aceituna, Cáceres.
    • Antonio Arauxo Quintas, Galicia
    • Diógenes Vicente Barrado, localidad: Salamanca
    • Xosé Antón Barreiro Pereira, abogado, Galicia
    • Manuel Castelao Mexuto, cineasta e escritor, Galicia.
    • Rosa Bernal Gómez, Galicia
    • Margarita Caballero Calleja, Galicia
    • José Cabañas González, Sindicalista de Comisiones Obreras
    • Miguel Antonio Carrasco Cayuela.
    • Alfons Cervera, Escritor, Valencia
    • José Antonio Conde Ares, A Coruña, Galicia
    • Sergio Couto González, Galicia
    • Paula Comesaña Garcia, Galicia
    • Telmo Comesaña Pampillón, Galicia
    • Javier Corcuera, cineasta, España.
    • Natalia Costas, Galicia
    • Dolors Diaz-Munio Roviralta, Psicóloga, Universidad de Valencia
    • Luis Díez, escritor y periodista, Madrid
    • Teresa Escoda Aloy, Alcossebre, Castellón
    • Francisco Espinosa Maestre, historiador, Villafranca de los Barros, Badajoz
    • Xosé Manuel Fernández Castro, escritor, Galicia
    • Angel Fernández González, Almeria.
    • Uxía Fernández Lijó, Galicia
    • Miguel Anxo Fernán Vello, poeta y editor, Galicia
    • Alejandro Fortea Moreno, coordinador local de Esquerra-Unida da´Aldaia y Sec. político del PCPV-PCE Horta-Sud, Valencia
    • Amando García, Profesor, Valencia
    • Pedro Alberto García Bilbao, sociólogo, profesor URJC, Madrid.
    • Cándida García Dacosta, Galicia
    • Antonia García Manzanelli, (en nombre de su padre Salustiano García Martínez, Guerrillero, Torre del Bierzo, Teruel), Córdoba, Argentina.
    • Leopoldo García Ortega, Galicia
    • Beatriz García - Ramos Macho, Galicia
    • José Luis García Romero, Totana, Murcia.
    • Angel García Rodríguez, Asturias
    • Presentación García Rubio, Madrid
    • Xoán Carlos Garrido Couceiro, Galicia
    • Domingo Javier González Alonso
    • María del Mar González de la Peña, nieta de desaparecido en GCE, Salamanca.
    • Esther Gracia i Astals
    • Jordi Grau i Gatell, Profesor IES, Valencia.
    • María Beatriz Gómez Amigo, a Coruña
    • Fernando Gómez Pérez-Carballo, Madrid
    • Pedro Gómez Valadés, Galicia
    • Jordi Grau i Gatell, Profesor Instituto, València.
    • Fernando Hernández Sánchez, Profesor de instituto, Fuenlabrada, Madrid.
    • Israel Ibañez Escoda, Alcossebre, Castellón
    • Ramon Ibáñez Roc, Alcossebre, Castellón
    • Paquita Iniesta Serrano, Nieta de un fusilado en El Espinardo, Barcelona.
    • Angeles Jiménez Santamaría, Madrid
    • Pedro Laguna Guinea, Estepona.
    • Lois Lamas, Galicia
    • Xose Lois martínez Suárez, Galicia
    • Manuel Lourenzo Pérez, dramaturgo e director teatral, Galicia
    • Santiago López, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca.
    • Carlos López Bernárdez, profesor y crítico de arte, Galicia
    • Celso López Pazos, Galicia
    • Xosé Manuel López Ciprian, Galicia.
    • Pascual López Sánchez, Murcia
    • Javier Lucas Ruiz
    • Jorge Llácer Gil de Ramales, Valencia
    • Juanjo Llorente, militante PC Horta Sud, Valencia
    • Aurora Marco López, profesora de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación de la Univerasidad de Santiago, Galicia.
    • Bernardo Máiz Vázquez, Galicia
    • Esperanza Martínez García, Zaragoza
    • Amada Martínez García, Madrid
    • Andrés Martinez Jerez, Madrid
    • Miguel Mato Fondo, profesor y poeta, Bico, Galicia
    • Antonio Monroy Álvarez, Galicia
    • Antonio Monroy Costas, Galicia
    • Julián de la Morena López, Ciudad Real.
    • Francisco Moreno Gómez, historiador, doctor en Filosofía y Letras, catedrático de Instituto, Villanueva de Córdoba, Córdoba.
    • Ramón Muñiz de la Cueva, A Coruña, Galicia
    • Agustina Nieto Pliego, Foro por la Memoria de Castellar de Santiago, Ciudad Real.
    • Raquel Ortiz, Profesora, Valencia
    • Miguel Padial Martín, Madrid
    • Carlos Pazos Paz, A Coruña, Galicia
    • J.M. Pelaez, Foro por la memoria de Castellar de Santiago, Ciudad Real.
    • José M. Pérez de Foro Memoria de Castellar de Santiago, Ciudad Real.
    • José Fernando Pérez Oya, sociólogo, Vigo, Galicia
    • Pedro Pescador Morán
    • Eduard Pons Prades, miembro de las FFI, historiador
    • Angel Prieto Prieto, El Piornal, Cáceres.
    • Laura Quintillán, violinista, Galicia
    • Xosé Henrique Porto Varela, Galicia
    • Julio Recuero Casado, Madrid
    • Josep Esteve Rico Sogorb, escritor y periodista, Elche, Alicante
    • Maria Roc Ebrí, Alcossebre, Castellón
    • José Felix Rojo Gormaz, Foro por la memoria de Castellar de Santiago, Ciudad Real
    • Gonzalo H. Rodríguez Amorín, Galicia
    • Matías Rodríguez da Torre, Silleda, Pontevedra
    • Manuel Rodríguez Ferreira, Galicia.
    • Covadonga Rodríguez González, Asturias
    • Luciano Rodríguez Gómez, profesor e crítico literario, Galicia
    • Euloxio Rodríguez Ruibal, dramaturgo, Galicia
    • Antonina Rodrigo, Escritora, Granada.
    • Xoán Manuel Rama Trillo, Galicia.
    • Luis Rei Núñez, xornalista e escritor, Galicia
    • Marga Romero Lorenzo, profesora e escritora, Galicia.
    • Amelia Romero Álvarez, Madrid
    • Xaquin Rubido Muñiz, A Coruña
    • José Sala Miguel, Suesa, Cantabria
    • Oscar San Nicolás,
    • Julia Sánchez Córdoba, Funcionaria, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia.
    • Amparo Sánchez Monroy y Martínez, Francia
    • Xavier Seoane, profesor y poeta, Galicia
    • Daniel de Tapia Sánchez
    • Mariló Tudela, Alcalá de Guadaíra, Sevilla
    • Carolina Udovicki, Bolivia
    • Marcos Valcárcel López, escritor, Galicia.
    • Vítor Vaqueiro, escritor y fotógrafo, Galicia
    • Carlos Fco. Velasco Souto, Profesor Universidade da Coruña, Galicia.
    • Lino Zaramella Daniela, Madrid


    The two documents referred to above are available in full, signed by all the associations which ratified them, on:

  • Tienda de Libros Radio Nizkor On-Line Donations

    HR in Spain
    small logoThis document has been published on 30Nov06 by the Equipo Nizkor and Derechos Human Rights. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, this material is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes.